🌏 Globalization changes shape but doesn’t reverse

In a recent paper by Thun et al., the research team introduced the concept of “massive modularity” – a form of economic coordination that accommodates complexity at scale and is a signature feature of multilayered component ecosystems underlying the ICT hardware industry (and arguably many others). Modularity, or in be radical’s verbiage, “stacks,” is a core enabler for companies to operate efficiently and effectively in increasingly bifurcated markets – small, nimble, niche players at the top, and large, vertically-integrated companies at the bottom and middle of the market. Massive modularity also means that processes are increasingly hard to decouple and reshore – a counter-indicator to the growing near-shoring narrative.